Hallux valgus in children

This pathological change in the direction of the axes of the lower extremity predisposes the development of flatfoot. Gradually, with regular exercises and treatment procedures, the position of the heel can be corrected by forming the correct placing of the feet; if hallux valgus in children is not treated, it can lead to irreversible changes of musculoskeletal system. Therapy pathology takes a lot of time and effort, but in everyday tasks, the baby will be rewarded with a beautiful gait and correct foot arch.

What is the valgus foot in children

Defect of the foot characterized by a reduction in the height of their arches and x-shaped curvature of the axis of the limb, is called "valgus installation stop in children." In this pathology the kids celebrate the turning of the heel and fingers outward, drooping of the middle division of the foot, clumsiness of gait. If the child straightens and compresses the knee joint, the distance between the inner sides of the ankles is not more than 4-5 cm in the inner vaults "filled up" inside.

At what age is evident

All newborns have flat feet is the norm, as kids still can't walk, and ligaments, bones and tendons have to learn how to test the load. As soon as the child begins to stand up, rely on your feet and walk, he formed and strengthened foot. When the arches do not have the formed structure or for a long time not seen, doctors put an interim diagnosis of "hallux valgus". Noticeable changes can be around 1-1.5 years.

At the first signs that indicate that appears the curvature of the feet, an urgent need to show the child the doctor because pathology tends to progress. If you do not treat the disease, the situation will worsen, causing the development of more serious problems. The doctor will assess the health of the baby and determine what therapeutic measures would be optimal. As a rule, to resolve the problem using conservative methods, surgery is resorted to rarely, only in severe cases.

Flat feet in children - causes

Pathology can be acquired or congenital in nature. In some cases, the formation of hallux valgus in children contribute to the parents themselves, trying to put him on his legs to learn to walk. It is weak musculoskeletal system of the baby is not ready to such loadings, resulting in evolving deformation processes. To take the first steps the child needs at that age when his body will get stronger and be ready for it (around 10-12 months).

PLANO deformity of foot in children

Congenital

To provoke the emergence of a pathology may be genetic disposition or any disorders during pregnancy. Congenital deformity of foot in children is usually diagnosed by doctors at an early age of the child (in the first months of baby's life). The most dangerous varieties of congenital abnormalities are considered to be stop rocking and vertical RAM. In the diagnosis of this type requires surgical intervention.

Purchased

A defect of the foot can occur due to a failure, underdevelopment of the tendons and ligaments of the feet, in addition, the curvature of the limb sometimes becomes a low muscle tone child. The baby's legs can grow wrong at these factors:

  • prematurity;
  • excess weight newborn;
  • fetal malnutrition;
  • scoliosis;
  • polio;
  • rickets;
  • accustom to walking toddler at too early an age;
  • Cerebral palsy;
  • congenital weakness of the connective tissue (formed in utero);
  • myodystrophy;
  • dysplasia;
  • prolonged legs in plaster after suffering injuries;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • polyneuropathy;
  • infectious, viral disease;
  • mismatched shoes (no sufficient fixing of the heel, too soft);
  • congenital dislocation of the hip.

Symptoms

Upon the occurrence of hallux valgus parents notice the symptoms of the disease, as a rule, only when the baby begins to take its first steps. And most of the kids as you gain walking skills symptoms of rejection disappears. Another thing, if the kid long walks alone, and the symptoms remain. In this case, the child is required to see a doctor. The most common symptoms of curvature of the ankle joint are:

  • the baby does not occur on the entire surface of the foot during walking, but only on its inner arch;
  • noticeable clumsiness in gait;
  • the child gets tired of walking.
  • steps crumbs uncertain;
  • the shape of the foot is X-shaped;
  • when walk heard the shuffling.
Symptoms

How does the curvature stop the child

Improper setting stop baby you may notice some variations, for example, changing the position of the fingers and heel while bending (they look outside). The average part of the foot sags, whereby the foot position is unnatural. Children with limb deformities, marked curvature of the legs due to the deformation of the knee joints: if they are together, the inner edges of the ankles remain relatively large distance from each other (4-5 cm).

Curvature occurs due to deformation processes and ends with the formation of flat feet and other abnormalities of the musculoskeletal apparatus. The problem can be seen if you look closely at the legs of crumbs: when they kept the knees curved X-shaped manner. In most cases, this pathology is congenital, and the youngest is yourself, as evidence of insufficient development of the musculoskeletal system.

If by 5 years old the problem is, hope she'll go away for no reason, because the baby's legs at this age are aligned. At a later bending of the stop child requires specialized and timely treatment, otherwise the disease will lead to deformation of the knee joints and pelvis, which can cause curvature of the spine and other serious back problems (low back pain, deformation of vertebrae, etc.).

The stage of development of pathology

Disruption in the development of limbs if untreated, progresses gradually. There are the following stages of the disease:

  1. A mild form. The deviation is not more than 10-15 degrees from the norm. This stage of the warp stop easily corrected with the help of special orthopedic insoles and shoes.
  2. In the second stage the deviation in the position of the legs is equal to 15-20 degrees, and therapy should include a set of conservative and therapeutic interventions.
  3. In the third stage, a noticeable deviation of the joint inside 20-25 degrees. Therapy in this case is comprehensive and lasting.
  4. Severe degree of curvature of the stop is characterized by a deviation greater than 30 degrees. Treatment includes conservative methods, not always therapy is effective, therefore carried out a surgical operation.

How to diagnose curvature of the legs in a child

Curvature stop is diagnosed by careful examination of pediatrician, however to confirm the diagnosis the child should be seen by a specialist of orthopedics. Usually this purpose is assigned a number of additional studies:

  • Ultrasound of the joints;
  • x-rays in three projections;
  • computational study of footprint (track) stop;
  • computer research stop.
Diagnosis

Computational study of footprint (track) stop

Using this diagnostic study it is possible to calculate the morphological parameters of stop. The procedure determines the pathology on the footprint of the. Child's pose on the glass floor scanner with bare feet, followed by a scan. As a result,on the screen of the computer sees the podiatrist that can evaluate the condition of your feet a little patient and make a diagnosis.

Computer research stop

Procedure is necessary to assess how evenly distributed load over the foot. Computer research stop provides an opportunity to identify pathological changes in cases when the baby has not yet manifested clinical signs of hallux valgus. With clarifying the purpose of the pediatric orthopedist may prescribe additionally conduct ultrasound of the joints.

X-ray stop

Diagnostic method helps to identify the location of the stop relative to each other. On radiographs noticeable reduction of the height of the arch of the foot, the violation location, rear, front, middle divisions of the foot relative to each other. In addition, this diagnostic method helps to identify the deformation of individual bones in the joints of the Tarsus.

Ultrasound of the joints

Under certain conditions requires ultrasound of the joints. The study was conducted in the supine position of the patient, while under its lower extremity is placed a roller. Ankle smeared with a special gel that provides good contact of the sensor with the skin. The device emits high-frequency pulses by which the screen of the ultrasound apparatus visualized tissue. This diagnostic method helps to explore:

  • Shin bone;
  • ankle joints;
  • muscles of the leg;
  • bundles.

Treatment of hallux valgus in children

If not promptly begin therapy pathology, the child develops flat feet and there are other disorders of the musculoskeletal system. The goal of treatment of PLANO-valgus of the foot is to restore it to normal form, functions. In addition, certain physiotherapy and exercises strengthen the ligaments and muscle tissues. If you have obtained a form of the disease, children from the very beginning of the therapy conduct courses of massage, make a foot bath, treatments with paraffin, electrophoresis, electrostimulation, magnetotherapy, etc.

The treatment of hallux valgus

Casts in congenital deformation

When applying the plaster bandage, the doctor pays great attention to its formation to the projections, the deepening of the lower leg. The tips of the fingers should remain free, to be able to monitor the status of circulation. After 5-7 days the dressing is removed and carried out manual correction of hallux valgus. After imposed a new retaining clip for fastening the achieved result. The procedure is repeated until full correction of valgus foot.

Foot baths and therapeutic swimming

For the correction of the feet and the formation of the arches are the right shape, the baby is encouraged to practise swimming. In the absence of the ability to use the pool you can perform certain exercises at home in the bathroom.

Massage for hallux valgus in children

This method of treatment has a restorative effect, improves muscle tone, increases joint mobility, promotes healthy neurological development.

Physiotherapy

Listed below therapeutic methods are used as auxiliary. They activate metabolic processes in tissues and improves the flow in nutrients. The choice of physiotherapeutic procedures performed by a physician, with the maximum efficiency are different:

  • Electrophoresis.
  • Magnetotherapy.
  • Paraffin.
Physiotherapy

Exercises physical therapy

To correct deviations of five experienced pediatricians also recommend physical therapy. Exercise for correction of hallux valgus feet is very simple. The main condition to achieve positive results is to engage with the child regularly.

Surgical correction

To surgery for hallux valgus foot is used very rarely (only 7% of cases). Surgical intervention can be assigned individually with strong severity of disease. The most common methods of surgical treatment are:

  • transplantation of the tendon of the long peroneal muscles on the inner part of the foot with lengthening of the Achilles tendon;
  • the imposition of external fixation of the foot.

Wearing orthopedic shoes

Children with disease of the legs definitely need to wear medical orthopedic shoes that can be chosen individually. Its peculiarity lies in the fixing of the feet with the help of special insoles, arch supports, small stable heel and tough backs. The right shoes choose not the parents, and a podiatrist, who talks about the duration of wearing it (with constant use orthopedic shoes can muscles to atrophy). When valgus deformity of the feet shoes must meet the following requirements:

  • the correct sole, the presence of the Thomas heel, the inside of which is slightly longer than the outer;
  • soft top, edge;
  • a convenient clasp that secures the foot well, but not traumatizing her;
  • the back and sides should be relatively rigid and to allow for fixation of the ankle and metatarsal joints;
  • the smooth surface of the insole;
  • genuine leather outside and inside.

Preventing valgus feet and forecast

Valgus feet may go into severe stage, speaking not only as a cosmetic deformity, but also causing functional impairment of the limb until the disability at a young age. To avoid this, children up to 7-8 months to avoid strain on the lower limbs. In addition, we recommend the following preventive measures:

  • compliance with rational regime;
  • nutrition;
  • gymnastics;
  • hardening;
  • good sleep;
  • the vitamin D and all necessary trace elements;
  • regular, timely visits to a pediatrician;
  • the right choice of boots (even healthy babies wear shoes with orthopedic insoles).
09.08.2018