The causes of hallux valgus toe of the foot and methods of treatment

With a problem like bunions of the big toe, or "bone on foot" is familiar to a huge number of people. In this case, the curvature is not only amenable to a joint and the thumb itself, but also the neighboring toes and foot in General. In medicine this condition is called hallux valgus of the big toe, or in Latin – halyus valgus.

Most consider this a cosmetic problem and do not resort to any specific treatment, not seek medical help. But the disease brings many problems and discomfort in the wearing and selection of shoes. But in addition to cosmetic problems, hallux valgus carries information about problems with metabolism, musculoskeletal disorders, irregular lifestyle and bad habits. Therefore, the presence of the infamous bone in the leg is an important reason to pay attention to their health and obtain expert advice.

What is hallux valgus and how it looks?

Deformity of the big toe

Hallux valgus, or bunion of the big toe — this is an orthopedic disease in which there is a strong deviation of the first toe outward change plyusno-falangovogo joint.

Looks hallux valgus of the first toe of the foot as the discharge it inward towards the other toes, while the joint "POPs" out.

Suffer from this disease mostly women. This is connected probably with the wearing of uncomfortable shoes and accompanying this deformity. Interestingly, the disease is inherent only to the inhabitants of civilized countries, leading a sedentary lifestyle, eating "fast food" and wearing shoes.

In people, the disease known as "bunion" and he did not give special attention, in spite of all the delivered inconveniences. This is not a cosmetic defect, and orthopedic disease that requires a full comprehensive treatment.

Causes and risk factors of hallux valgus

Before there was a version according to which 1 hallux valgus toe of the foot is the result of trauma to the forefoot and improper treatment. Now this version was dissipantur scientists who proved that the predominant factor is the occurrence of genetic predisposition and anatomical structure of the foot.

The causes can be divided into two groups – risk factors and occurrence. The first is no guarantee of the development of hallux valgus of the big toe, but in certain conditions are able to provoke it. Second are the direct causes.

Risk factors include:

The development of hallux valgus
  1. Wearing tight, uncomfortable shoes, shoes with high heels . The correct position of the foot for a long time leads to the emergence of resistant strains, which in turn is the cause of valgus deformity of 1 finger.
  2. Transverse flatfoot. This disease affected more women than men. The cause of the deformity with flat feet is the same incorrect position, but independent from the type of shoes.
  3. Genetic predisposition. Congenital dysplasia plyusneklinovidnogo joint, pathology of locomotor apparatus, of the genetic pathology of metabolism.
  4. Anatomical structure of the foot, for example, a long first metatarsal bone.
  5. Arthritis. In this pathology also occurs deformation of the joints and bones, which can be complicated halyus valgus.
  6. Old age. Of metabolic disorders, decalcification of the bones, problems of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems play an important role in the occurrence of deformation of the big toe.
  7. Excess weight increases the pressure on the foot can cause valgus deformity.

The main causes of this disease are metabolic disorders and weakness iecerunt iacula metatarsus joint, resulting from deformation of the foot. Failure of the tendon unit promotes progressive change. The basis of the mechanism of emergence is the angle change between I and II metatarsal bones, causing the first metatarsal bone is displaced inwards, and the thumb moves outwards. The head of the metatarsal bone is held in the wrong position, and this forms a mensa crumenae distentae lump.

Who to contact for help?

The desire to cure mensa crumenae distentae bone on the foot in itself is already commendable. But to deal with their own solution to this problem is a risky business. The most sensible solution in this situation is to contact a specialist. To help in the treatment of valgus deformation of the big toe can an orthopedic traumatologist and surgeon. Do not be amiss to consult a physician and endocrinologist, which will help to identify problems with the endocrine system.

Only qualified medical assistance will allow not only to eliminate cosmetic defect, but also to prevent recurrent disease, cure its cause.

To eliminate the most protruding bone should consult a surgeon who in a relatively short time will help to rebuild the foot, and you will be able to wear your favorite shoes.

What degree of deformation distinguishes modern medicine?

Examination leg doctor

Decided to allocate four degrees hallyus valgus, depending on the deflection angle of the thumb:

  1. I degree — 15 degrees.
  2. II degree — 20 degrees.
  3. III degree — 30 degree.
  4. Grade IV — more than 30 degrees.

The first two degrees of valgus deformity of 1 toe of the foot is not complicated and brings mostly cosmetic discomfort. III and IV have implications for health. Among these malleo deformation, when the II and III fingers cease to participate in the process of walking; ingrown toenails; calluses and painful corns, which inflame and fester; swelling of foot, osteomyelitis. Therefore, timely diagnosis is paramount and can help avoid impacts associated with the complication of the inflammatory process.

What methods of treatment of hallux valgus exist today?

For a long time living with mensa crumenae distentae a growth on his leg, the question of how to cure the valgus deformation of the big toe is extremely important, because it is not only a cosmetic defect, but severe pain, inability to move safely, not to mention some physical activity .

Today, there are two groups of methods of treatment of hallux valgus the first toe – conservative and surgical.

From the point of view of efficiency of surgical intervention is more appropriate and rapid treatment of this pathology. Conservative treatment has another advantage – does not require anesthesia and generally better tolerated from a psychological point of view.

In fairness it should be noted that conservative treatment in recent years really has proved its effectiveness in the treatment of halyus valgus I—II degree. But on a more severe stage can help only surgical intervention.
Is it possible to cure the disease without surgery?

In the early stages conservative treatment is possible. Early stages means a deformity of the big toe I—II degree, with a small deflection angle and no complications.

Conservative treatment includes special exercises, correction of weight, the use of retainers, wearing orthopedic shoes and medical therapy.

At the initial stages of hallux valgus the big toe is exercises able to significantly reduce the deflection angle and the pain associated with this problem.

Among such exercises should note the following:

  1. exercise, ankle stretching: stretching socks on himself, sitting on the floor; lifting on socks, standing on the step;
  2. "Bicycle" in which the legs move from the hip to toes parallel to the floor, slowly, with traction socks on "push" with their feet and the tension on the flexure;
  3. breeding of socks in hand, sitting on the floor with straight legs;
  4. active finger movements of the legs (compression, breeding);
  5. exercises with small ball-expander: it is necessary to clamp the ball between the "seed" of both legs and try to put him under as much pressure as possible, as if crushing the ball.

One of the common causes of bones on the legs is excessive pressure on the foot due to the extra weight. The weight loss is a mandatory condition of treatment. Correction should include an adequate diet and physical activity.

Weight check

Today podiatrists are actively using the new development, namely, the clips that adjust the position of the big toe in hallux valgus. They are worn primarily at night and removed in the morning. An example of such a retainer is the retainer of the gel. The use of clamps for deformed thumb allows you to completely remove a defect at stage I, and significantly reduce the discomfort and bulging with hallux valgus degrees from II to IV.

Wearing comfortable orthopedic shoes is recommended in most cases of incipient hallux valgus. The patient was prescribed a soft wide shoes with the insole from flat and the retaining "Cup" to wear. These shoes are recommended to wear as a curative in the first stages and after the surgery to maintain and secure the result.

Drug therapy includes NSAIDs, analgesics, corticosteroids in the form of injections. This can significantly relieve the symptoms halyus valgus in the treatment without surgery.

Less effective, but still able to alleviate the pain with hallux valgus baths and wraps. They are mainly assigned as adjuvant therapy to other methods, or as a preparation before and assistance after surgery.

In the early stages conservative treatment halyus valgus is quite effective.

Surgical treatment halyus valgus

In the later stages that are characterized not only severe deformity, but complications, appropriate and only effective treatment remains surgery. Previously, such operation is considered not just ineffective, but dangerous method of treatment, and the operation was taken every surgeon.

Today, there are more than two hundred successful operations that are applied if the curvature of the big toe. Complications are almost non-existent. The most used methods of surgical treatment are the following.

  1. Mini-invasive correction of hallux valgus. There is no need for repeated surgical intervention and implantation, even in the later stages of disease. They only make two small holes on two sides of the thumb and with the aid of small piriformis is a little jewelry work to align the provisions of the metatarsus bones and phalanges of the thumb extension of the capsule.
  2. Chevron-osteotomy. This type of operation is used in the I —II degree of deformation (not more than 17 degrees in declination). The operation involves excision of the tumor and fixing the joint of the big toe with the help of titanium wire and screw for a certain time. Then the design is removed and the person is happily living with a nice stop.
  3. The scarf osteotomy. This method is applied when the curvature of II—III degree of severity (from 17 to 40 degrees). The operation involves manual correction of the position of metatarsus bones and phalanges fixation using two titanium screws.

These operations on halyus valgus are effective for the treatment at any stage of the disease.

Regardless of the size and complexity of the operation, the surgical intervention requires careful post-operative care. Usually rehabilitation takes about three weeks. In most cases, surgery halyus valgus people have to wear special shoes in the afternoon, and corrective bus at night. After 6 weeks you can leave only the wearing of a special wide shoes. Also be sure to use anti-inflammatory drugs and performing therapeutic exercises to restore normal operation of the legs.

There are also special rehabilitation programmes after surgery for halyus valgus, help to restore the function of muscles and tendons.

Possible prevention of hallux valgus?

Prevention is is coming from causes. It is obvious that the only way to prevent this disease is wearing comfortable shoes, active lifestyle, weight control and timely access to a podiatrist. And need to visit a specialist not only at the first signs of strain, but just once a year for a checkup.

It is also important to regularly monitor the health status and the level of cholesterol in the blood. Of great importance is the implementation of prevention exercises and timely correction of flatfoot.

Therefore, valgus deformity of the first toe is the problem as cosmetic and medical. After all, the inability to wear beautiful shoes and tristia deformes pariunt is only the tip of the iceberg. In fact, there are more serious changes in the level of the whole organism. But halyus valgus is not a sentence. Today in medicine there are four degrees of severity of deformity of the big toe and the treatment is assigned based on the severity of the disease and the goal.

In the early stages it is possible to eliminate this pathology using minimally invasive surgery or latch, and with a strong strain will help complete the surgery with fixation of the phalanges. Prevention involves reducing the load on ossis metatarsalis phalangeal connection by wearing the right shoes and weight correction. Timely access to a podiatrist will not just eliminate disease, but to prevent it.

10.08.2018