The most common pathology of the foot – hallux valgus, expressed varying degrees of protrusion of the bone to the outer side of the foot at the base of the first phalanx, the formation of sub phalanges plantar callosities and a large deformation of the fingers.
This pathology is caused by curvature and deformity of the metatarsal joint expandentes, causing expansion of the forefoot causing a large amplitude displacement of ligaments and tendons.
The disease has ancient roots, the first mention of it found in the writings of the physician and magician Cubilia, dated 1769.
Further description defining how the hallux valgus deviation of the big toe from the median plane, made in 1871, the famous physician of his time – Hutter. And in 1911 G. A. Albrecht, Russia has described this disease, as Gout is the most common orthopedic pathology.
To understand the nature of the disease, consider the problem in a concise, accessible to every reader form. The structure of the foot of the person includes a number of metatarsal bones, phalanges of digitus, ligaments and tendons connecting them.
With a healthy foot, the normal location of the metatarsal bones is purely parallel to one another location. Due to various negative factors, there is a deformity of the first metatarsal bone and its deviation in the direction (outward), forming the oblongum small lump.
The duration of the process causes the progression of the disease, in which the foot "breaks". Dysfunction of the ligaments and tendons, with loss of elasticity leads to more extensive pathology of the first metatarsal bone. Depending on the severity of symptoms and progression of hallux valgus, the disease has several stages.
If you do not take any measures and let the disease to chance, the wrong loads on the feet cause pathological processes in the spine, knee and hip joints.
The risk group includes mainly middle-aged women, and the disease in women is almost ten times more often than men.
Risk factors are:
First cause of hallux valgus was first described in 1852 by Dr. Brock, who suggested and linked the appearance of this disease with the wearing of improper shoes. Later with his assumption agreed as the systematic wearing of shoes with high (>5 cm) heel, narrow toe shoes, mismatched shoes may well be one of the factors of formation of hallux valgus.
Due to the anatomical features, the main reason for hallux valgus is the result of natural causes related to the lack of structure of the human foot. In most cases, it is congenital or acquired transverse flatfoot.
But even a genetic factor such a disadvantage is not an unambiguous assertion of congenital abnormalities, as nor small children, nor in children puberty, valgus deformity of the big toe is never found. This suggests that even hereditary factors should contribute to any cause, and they can be:
So at the initial stage to identify a hallux valgus deformation of the big toe, you need to know the early symptoms of the disease. Typical the signs of deformity depends on its stage.
In the early stages of the disease are noted:
In the middle stage:
Advanced stage of hallux valgus:
The first step in the diagnosis of hallux valgus is a visual inspection will determine the stage of the disease.
The results of this extended diagnosis are the basis for determining treatment.
Treatment of valgus. without surgery quite a long process that requires patience and perseverance. Depends on the degree of deformation of the big toe joint.
In early and moderate hallux valgus treatment begins with recommendations to the proper selection of footwear – free and comfortable with a wide toe box to reduce pressure and to remove the inconvenience, to prevent further deformation.
Selection of orthotic devices, distributing strain and reduce load and friction on the feet. It can be:
The use of such devices contributes to the correction of the gait, pain, braking of the pathological process.
Drug therapy involves the use of corticosteroids and combined use of anti-inflammatory drugs with physiotherapy. If valgus. is a consequence of any systemic diseases, the first removes the background causes of the disease that caused pathology.
Advanced stage disease is treated prompt surgical intervention. It can be:
Want to prevent hallux valgus deformation of the big toe? Then learn, because the basic rules of prevention are:
Attentive to their health, will help to avoid many health problems.
If after reading the article, you assume that you have a characteristic for this disease symptoms, you should seek the advice of a podiatrist.