Valgus deformity of the big toe: treatment, symptoms, causes

The most common pathology of the foot – hallux valgus, expressed varying degrees of protrusion of the bone to the outer side of the foot at the base of the first phalanx, the formation of sub phalanges plantar callosities and a large deformation of the fingers.

hallux valgus

This pathology is caused by curvature and deformity of the metatarsal joint expandentes, causing expansion of the forefoot causing a large amplitude displacement of ligaments and tendons.

The disease has ancient roots, the first mention of it found in the writings of the physician and magician Cubilia, dated 1769.

Further description defining how the hallux valgus deviation of the big toe from the median plane, made in 1871, the famous physician of his time – Hutter. And in 1911 G. A. Albrecht, Russia has described this disease, as Gout is the most common orthopedic pathology.

The clinical picture

To understand the nature of the disease, consider the problem in a concise, accessible to every reader form. The structure of the foot of the person includes a number of metatarsal bones, phalanges of digitus, ligaments and tendons connecting them.

With a healthy foot, the normal location of the metatarsal bones is purely parallel to one another location. Due to various negative factors, there is a deformity of the first metatarsal bone and its deviation in the direction (outward), forming the oblongum small lump.

The duration of the process causes the progression of the disease, in which the foot "breaks". Dysfunction of the ligaments and tendons, with loss of elasticity leads to more extensive pathology of the first metatarsal bone. Depending on the severity of symptoms and progression of hallux valgus, the disease has several stages.

  1. 1) the Early stage of the disease — is determined by the deviation of the big toe to the side at a distance not exceeding fifteen degrees. The lump is small in size.
  2. 2) the Middle stage of the disease — is determined by the deviation of the finger up to twenty degrees. The next finger is the second, raised above the thumb like the hammer shape.
  3. 3) In advanced stages of the disease — deformity is noted triginta gradus deviation. Deformed fingers at the base of the first phalanx sticks out a big shot, and in places the greatest stress produced rough calluses.

If you do not take any measures and let the disease to chance, the wrong loads on the feet cause pathological processes in the spine, knee and hip joints.

The causes of hallux valgus

dermacia thumb

The risk group includes mainly middle-aged women, and the disease in women is almost ten times more often than men.

Risk factors are:

  • rickets – childhood;
  • age factor;
  • long-term professional employment with ballet and dance;
  • diseases that cause inflammation in the joints.

First cause of hallux valgus was first described in 1852 by Dr. Brock, who suggested and linked the appearance of this disease with the wearing of improper shoes. Later with his assumption agreed as the systematic wearing of shoes with high (>5 cm) heel, narrow toe shoes, mismatched shoes may well be one of the factors of formation of hallux valgus.

Due to the anatomical features, the main reason for hallux valgus is the result of natural causes related to the lack of structure of the human foot. In most cases, it is congenital or acquired transverse flatfoot.

But even a genetic factor such a disadvantage is not an unambiguous assertion of congenital abnormalities, as nor small children, nor in children puberty, valgus deformity of the big toe is never found. This suggests that even hereditary factors should contribute to any cause, and they can be:

  • longitudinal or transverse platypodia;
  • a consequence of congenital abnormalities;
  • weakened ligaments, as a result of pregnancy or during menopausal women;
  • when a large mass of the body;
  • osteoporosis, when there is significant bone loss;
  • with the rapid growth stops at puberty;
  • as a result of traumatic deformation;
  • diseases of endocrine nature.
  • professional activities related to long tension legs.

The symptoms of hallux valgus


So at the initial stage to identify a hallux valgus deformation of the big toe, you need to know the early symptoms of the disease. Typical the signs of deformity depends on its stage.

In the early stages of the disease are noted:

  • aching pain and its aggravating when walking, proximal phalanges;
  • redness and abrasions of the skin protruding bones.

In the middle stage:

  • it is noted the development of inflammation of the joint;
  • characteristic manifestations of pain and swelling, formation of tumors in the head of the metatarsal bone;
  • under the third, the middle flank appears a bunion.

Advanced stage of hallux valgus:

  • has sharp pain in the big toe and on the soles of the feet;
  • the protruding tongue-the build-up is well visible;
  • the skin under the lower second and third phalanges covered with dead skin cells or calluses.

Diagnosis of hallux valgus

The first step in the diagnosis of hallux valgus is a visual inspection will determine the stage of the disease.

  1. 1) With the aim of defining detailed changes in the bone tissue, is assigned to the x-ray.
  2. 2) de plantography Method determines the stage of a possible flat feet and explores the level of load on the foot.
  3. 3) Computer analysis – podometry, determines the pressure on the foot.

The results of this extended diagnosis are the basis for determining treatment.

Treatment of valgus deformation of the big toe without surgery


Treatment of valgus. without surgery quite a long process that requires patience and perseverance. Depends on the degree of deformation of the big toe joint.

In early and moderate hallux valgus treatment begins with recommendations to the proper selection of footwear – free and comfortable with a wide toe box to reduce pressure and to remove the inconvenience, to prevent further deformation.

Selection of orthotic devices, distributing strain and reduce load and friction on the feet. It can be:

  • foot support;
  • interdigital rollers;
  • orthopedic correctors;
  • corrective insoles.

The use of such devices contributes to the correction of the gait, pain, braking of the pathological process.

Drug therapy involves the use of corticosteroids and combined use of anti-inflammatory drugs with physiotherapy. If valgus. is a consequence of any systemic diseases, the first removes the background causes of the disease that caused pathology.

Advanced stage disease is treated prompt surgical intervention. It can be:

  • remove the growth surgically;
  • reconstruction of deformed bones;
  • surgery to trim the periarticular muscles;
  • the distal and proximal osteotomy – changing the angle between the bones;
  • arthrodesis is a surgery for fixing a joint;
  • transplantation of tendons;
  • operation on implantation of artificial joints
  • or about 93 individually selected methods.

Prevention of the disease


Want to prevent hallux valgus deformation of the big toe? Then learn, because the basic rules of prevention are:

  1. 1) early detection and treatment of any type of flatfoot.
  2. 2) the Correct selection of shoes, no high heels and narrow socks made from natural materials.
  3. 3) Use orthopedic insoles and arch supports.
  4. 4) When used for long periods on feet, rest the feet and do a relaxing warm baths.

Attentive to their health, will help to avoid many health problems.

Which doctor should I contact for treatment?

If after reading the article, you assume that you have a characteristic for this disease symptoms, you should seek the advice of a podiatrist.