The foot is a pillar of the body. Due to its structure it is able to withstand considerable loads. But the feature structure of the foot that changes in any of its Department entails the transformation of other structures. Foot deformities lead to change of gait, fatigue of the legs and limited motion of the spine, up to disability.

The deformity may be congenital and acquired. To change the shape of the foot contributes to a number of factors: the hereditary characteristics of the structures of the foot to diseases and lifestyle. There are several types of foot deformities:

  1. Clubfoot;
  2. Flat feet;
  3. Hollow foot;
  4. Valgus deformity of the first toe (also called hallux valgus);
  5. varus deformity of the fifth toe of the foot (synonym — strain Taylor);
  6. malleo deformation of the fingers.


Clubfoot is often a congenital disorder, per thousand births is found one case of this strain. Clubfoot can be unilateral, although more common is still way deformation.

Acquired clubfoot occurs on the background of injuries of the foot, paralysis of lower extremities, deep burns in this area. Clubfoot is clinically manifested by the following features:

  • Bringing the distal part of the foot;
  • equinus — flexion of the foot;
  • Supination — rotation of the foot inwards.

Depending on the severity of these symptoms distinguish light, medium and heavy deformation.

Gait in people with such diseases are peculiar: they move in small steps, moving the given one foot over the other in a few designated and laterally rotated hips. When walking the entire burden falls on the outer part of the foot.

Due to the shift of the center of gravity of such patients increases lateral lordosis, and knee joints strongly straighten and deform.

FLAT feet

In the foot distinguish between transverse and longitudinal arches. They play the role of a shock absorber, saving the spine and internal organs from shocks while traveling. The arches are held in position the bones, ligaments and muscles. Flatfoot is characterized by the lowering of the arches. The reasons for the development are the reduction of the elasticity of the muscular foot.

Flat foot can be congenital or acquired. Acquired flat foot develops due to chronic overload stop, after rickets, injury, paralysis of the lower limbs and are much more common than congenital. It should be noted that many children show signs of flat feet at an early age. This feature stems from the fact that longitudinal arch is formed by seven years of age. With age, the severity of flat feet decreases. So, for nine years remains such a strain, only 5-7 % of children.

Flat feet sometimes transverse and longitudinal. Cross is characterized by an increase of the distance between the heads of the metatarsal bones. Thus the load is distributed incorrectly, and focuses on the front part of the foot. The flexors of the toes are in a high voltage causing the fingers become malleo. Another symptom of transverse flatfoot is the development of valgus deviation of the first toe (hallux valgus). In the case of longitudinal flat feet is flattened longitudinal arch causing the foot contact with the floor partially, and have almost entire area of the sole.

There are three degrees of flat feet, which are set according to the height and angle of the arch. At the initial stage, patients can only mention fatigue of feet and soreness of the feet, while running stage flat feet accompanied by pain, posture and gait.

hollow stupa


Hollow foot is a deformity in which the elevation of the longitudinal arch increases. We can say that the hollow foot is the opposite of flat feet when the arch opposite flattened. The development of such deformations lead to diseases of the neuromuscular apparatus (cerebral palsy, neuropathy, etc.), fractures of the talus or metatarsal bones, burns of the foot. Signs of a hollow foot are:

  • Heel supination (turning inward);
  • Pronation forefoot;
  • High raised arch.

When severe deformation of the foot rests only on the heel backs and heads of the metatarsal bones, while the middle part of the foot is not in contact with the ground.

Stop radiisque rotarum propagationem in the area of the metatarsus heads, which in these areas of skin often have corns. Over time, the fingers are deformed and acquire the malleo or the same shape in the form of claws. People with hollow stop complain stop fatigue, soreness.


Valgus deformity of the first toe (Latin hallux valgus) is a disease quite common in people it is called "bump stop". This deformity can also be congenital or acquired. But often the disease occurs in adulthood. Valgus deformity of the first toe often occurs in tandem with transverse flatfoot.

Hallux valgus occurs when the curvature of the first toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint, when the phalanges are arranged to each other at an angle. Protrusion of the phalanx to the side visually looks like a "bump".

Hallux valgus with second toe as if superimposed on top of the first, and with much of the deformation is superimposed on the second third. As the deviation of the first toe stretch the ligaments and capsule of the metatarsophalangeal joint, which contributes to subluxations. In addition, articular capsule, the inflammation — bursitis. This condition is accompanied by redness and swelling in the region of the metatarsophalangeal joint. People with hallux valgus have been experiencing pain in the area of the first finger.


The deformation of Taylor also known as "stop tailor", since this deformation occurred to the profession by crossing legs and cum recubuisset ille on the lateral surface of the foot during operation.

The disease is characterized by a curvature of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the fifth toe, which at the base of the little finger formed education "bump". Person with a similar problem concerned the swelling of the little finger, its redness, soreness, and fatigue of legs. Very often varus deviation of the fifth finger is accompanied by a hallux valgus.


Malleo fingers often occur in combination with other deformations of the foot: transverse flatfoot or hallux valgus. Can be formed malleo fingers and result in cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis.

Such deformation of the toes occurs as a result of intensive tension of muscles-extensors of the finger and the distension of the muscles-flexors. Against the background of these changes is very straighten the proximal phalanges and the maximum bend of the middle and distal phalanges. In the metatarsophalangeal joint subluxations occur, and further develops deforming osteoarthritis. Soon there is pain in the fingers and feet, from-for what people actually go to the doctor.



Treatment in the initial stages may be limited to the use of conservative methods. To such methods of treatment include:

  • Therapeutic exercises;
  • Massage;
  • Physiotherapy (paraffin baths, electromyostimulation, mud);
  • Warm baths for the feet;
  • The use of orthopedic insoles, inserts, shoes;

Redressatsiya is the forcible removal manually deformed foot in its anatomical position. Then the leg fixed with bandages. But it is not always possible to eliminate all strain components with this method.

Important! Treatment of foot deformities in babies need to take as early as possible, because at a young age the tissue is very plastic and is able to be reconstructed at the correct position of the foot. Accordingly, the older the child, the harder it is to treat.

In cases of severe deformation, when the disease impairs quality of life — surgical treatment. There are the following types of transactions:

  1. Operations on the soft tissues of the foot;
  2. Operations on the bones;
  3. Combined operations.


To prevent the development of foot deformities can help with certain recommendations. Prophylaxis should be carried out since the first years of baby's life and should include:

  • Strengthening the muscles that hold the arch with the help of exercise;
  • The formation of correct gait;
  • Weight control;
  • Exaction suitable footwear;
  • Wearing orthopedic insoles.